Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Solar Probe Plus

 Solar Probe Plus or Solar Probe+, previously NASA Solar Probe, is a planned robotic spacecraft to probe the outer corona of the Sun.It will approach to within 8.5 solar radii (5.9 million kilometers or 3.67 million miles) to the 'surface' (photosphere) of the Sun.The project was announced as a new mission start in the fiscal 2009 budget year. On May 1, 2008 Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory announced it will design and build the spacecraft, on a schedule to launch it in 2015. The launch date has since been pushed back to 2018,with the Delta IV Heavy as the launch vehicle.This was due to budget matters.
The mission is designed to survive the harsh environment near the Sun, where the incident solar intensity is approximately 520 times the intensity at Earth orbit, by the use of a solar shadow-shield. The solar shield, at the front of the spacecraft, is made of reinforced carbon-carbon composite. The spacecraft systems, and the scientific instruments, are located in the umbra of the shield, where direct light from the sun is fully blocked. The primary power for the mission will be by use of a dual system of photovoltaic arrays. A primary photovoltaic array, used for the portion of the mission outside 0.25 AU, is retracted behind the shadow shield during the close approach to the Sun, and a much smaller secondary array powers the spacecraft through closest approach. This secondary array uses pumped-fluid cooling to maintain operating temperature.The first time in history where they are going to used water like stuff to cool down the space probe as it get within 3 million miles from the sun.
 It would used flyby of Venus to get the orbit closer to the sun. The shield is base on design of the  MESSENGER space probe that orbit Mercury,This shield s 4inch thick.They wanted to do this for 50 years but the tect wasn't there let. They are also planing a solar orbiter this is between NASA and the ESA
In September 2010, NASA selected five investigations for Solar Probe Plus:
Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons Investigation, which will specifically count the most abundant particles in the solar wind — electrons, protons and helium ions — and measure their properties. The investigation also is designed to catch some of the particles in a special cup (known as a Faraday cup) for direct analysis.  Principal Investigator: Justin C. Kasper, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.
The Wide-field Imager, a telescope that will make 3-D images of the sun's corona, or atmosphere. The experiment actually will see the solar wind and provide 3-D images of clouds and shocks as they approach and pass the spacecraft. This investigation complements instruments on the spacecraft providing direct measurements by imaging the plasma the other instruments sample. Principal Investigator: Russell Howard, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington
The Fields Experiment, which will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, radio emissions, and shock waves that course through the Sun's atmospheric plasma. The experiment also serves as a giant dust detector, registering voltage signatures when specks of space dust hit the spacecraft's antenna. Principal Investigator: Stuart Bale, University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.
The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun, which consists of two instruments that will take an inventory of elements in the Sun's atmosphere using a mass spectrometer to weigh and sort ions in the vicinity of the spacecraft. Principal Investigator: David McComas, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio.
Heliospheric Origins with Solar Probe Plus Principal Investigator Marco Velli, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the mission's observatory scientist, responsible for serving as a senior scientist on the science working group. He will provide an independent assessment of scientific performance and act as a community advocate for the mission.

Thursday, May 5, 2016

Pluto’s Interaction with the Solar Wind is Unique, Study Finds

Pluto behaves less like a comet than expected and somewhat more like a planet like Mars or Venus in the way it interacts with the solar wind, a continuous stream of charged particles from the sun.
This is according to the first analysis of Pluto’s interaction with the solar wind, funded by NASA’s New Horizons mission and published today in the Journal of Geophysical Research – Space Physics by the American Geophysical Union (AGU).
Using data from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument from the New Horizons July 2015 flyby, scientists have for the first time observed the material coming off of Pluto’s atmosphere and studied how it interacts with the solar wind, leading to yet another “Pluto surprise.”
“This is a type of interaction we’ve never seen before anywhere in our solar system,” said David J. McComas, lead author of the study. McComas, professor of astrophysical sciences at Princeton University and vice president for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. “The results are astonishing.” McComas leads the SWAP instrument aboard New Horizons; he also led the development of SWAP when he was at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas.
Space physicists say that they now have a treasure trove of information about how Pluto’s atmosphere interacts with the solar wind. Solar wind is the plasma that spews from the sun into the solar system at a supersonic 100 million miles per hour (160 million kilometers per hour), bathing planets, asteroids, comets and interplanetary space in a soup of mostly protons and electrons.
Previously, most researchers thought that Pluto was characterized more like a comet, which has a large region of gentle slowing of the solar wind, as opposed to the abrupt diversion solar wind encounters at a planet like Mars or Venus. Instead, like a car that’s part gas- and part battery-powered, Pluto is a hybrid, researchers say.
So Pluto continues to confound. “These results speak to the power of exploration. Once again we’ve gone to a new kind of place and found ourselves discovering entirely new kinds of expressions in nature,” said SwRI’s Alan Stern, New Horizons principal investigator.
Since it’s so far from the sun – an average of about 3.7 billion miles, the farthest planet in the solar system – and because it’s the smallest, scientists thought Pluto’s gravity would not be strong enough to hold heavy ions in its extended atmosphere. But, “Pluto’s gravity clearly is enough to keep material relatively confined,” McComas said.
The researchers were able to separate the heavy ions of methane, the main gas escaping from Pluto’s atmosphere, from the light ions of hydrogen that come from the sun using the SWAP instrument.
Among additional Pluto findings:
  • Like Earth, Pluto has a long ion tail, that extends downwind at least a distance of about 100 Pluto radii (73,800 miles/118,700 kilometers, almost three times the circumference of Earth), loaded with heavy ions from the atmosphere and with “considerable structure.”
  • Pluto’s obstruction of the solar wind upwind of the planet is smaller than had been thought. The solar wind isn’t blocked until about the distance of a couple planetary radii (1,844 miles/3,000 kilometers, about the distance between Chicago and Los Angeles.)
  • Pluto has a very thin boundary of Pluto’s tail of heavy ions and the sheath of the shocked solar wind that presents an obstacle to its flow.
Heather Elliott, astrophysicist at SwRI and co-author on the paper, notes, “Comparing the solar wind-Pluto interaction to the solar wind-interaction for other planets and bodies is interesting because the physical conditions are different for each, and the dominant physical processes depend on those conditions.”
These findings offer clues to the magnetized plasmas that one might find around other stars, said McComas. “The range of interaction with the solar wind is quite diverse, and this gives some comparison to help us better understand the connections in our solar system and beyond.”

Wednesday, February 17, 2016

White Rock Fingers on Mars

Intrigued by the possibility that they could be salt deposits left over as an ancient lakebed dried-up, detailed studies of these fingers now indicate a more mundane possibility: volcanic ash. Studying the exact color of the formation indicated the possible volcanic origin. The light material appears to have eroded away from surrounding area, indicating a very low-density substance. The stark contrast between the rocks and the surrounding sand is compounded by the unusual darkness of the sand. The featured picture was taken with the Thermal Emission Imaging System on the Mars Odyssey, the longest serving spacecraft currently orbiting Mars. The image spans about 10 kilometers inside a larger crater.

Saturday, January 23, 2016

A Dark Sand Dune on Mars

What is that dark sand dune doing on Mars? NASA's robotic rover Curiosity has been studying it to find out, making this the first-ever up-close investigation of an active sand dune on another world. Named Namib Dune, the dark sand mound stands about 4 meters tall and, along with the other Bagnold Dunes, is located on the northwestern flank of Mount Sharp. The featured image was taken last month and horizontally compressed here for comprehensibility. Wind is causing the dune to advance about one meter a year across the light bedrock underneath, and wind-blown sand is visible on the left. Part of the Curiosity rover itself is visible on the lower right. Just in the past few days, Curiosity scooped up some of the dark sand for a detailed analysis. After further exploration of the Bagnold Dunes, Curiosity is scheduled to continue its trek up the 5-kilometer tall Mount Sharp, the central peak in the large crater where the car-sized rover landed.

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

A New Ninth Planet May Have Been Detected, Scientists Say

Sad that Pluto isn't a planet anymore? Don't worry, Caltech researchers may have discovered a new planet lurking in the outer reaches of our solar system.
They're calling it "Planet Nine" for now. The planet, if it exists, has a mass 10 times that of Earth and takes between 10,000 and 20,000 years to orbit the sun.
 Planet Nine has not actually been observed. Instead, evidence of the planet was discovered through mathematical modeling and computer simulations. Kind of like planet Neptune was discover."Although we were initially quite skeptical that this planet could exist, as we continued to investigate its orbit and what it would mean for the outer solar system, we become increasingly convinced that it is out there,"
 It all started in 2014 with the investigation of 13 objects in the Kuiper Belt — a region of the solar system beyond Neptune filled with comets and other icy bodies, as well as dwarf planets including Pluto.

Six of those objects had an orbit that suggested they were circling some distant object, which the researchers now believe is the ninth planet in our solar system. Although they believe they know the planet's orbit, they hope to actually locate it using a large telescope.
"This would be a real ninth planet," Brown said. "There have only been two true planets discovered since ancient times, and this would be a third. It's a pretty substantial chunk of our solar system that's still out there to be found, which is pretty exciting.
The new would be about the same size as Neptune.
 (How the planet might look like in the artist pic.)

Monday, January 11, 2016

Space stuff for the year 2016

Here's a brief rundown of the biggest spaceflight miletones to keep an eye out for in 2016, from a NASA probe's arrival at Jupiter to the highly anticipated maiden flight of SpaceX's huge new rocket.

Jan. 17: Launch of Jason-3 Earth-observing satellite

On Sunday (Jan. 17), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Jason-3 satellite is scheduled to launch to Earth orbit atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.
If all goes according to plan, the Jason-3 mission — a collaboration involving NOAA, the European climate-satellite organization EUMETSAT, the French space agency CNES and NASA — will make precise measurements of sea-level variations around the planet.

Jason-3's measurements will add to a valuable climate-change dataset that has been accruing for more than two decades, thanks to the observations of three other satellites known as TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 (which launched in 1992, 2001 and 2008, respectively), NASA officials have said.
SpaceX will also try to land the Falcon 9's first stage on an uncrewed ship off the coast of California during Sunday's launch — part of the company's efforts to develop fully and rapidly reusable rockets, which advocates say could slash the cost of spaceflight dramatically.

SpaceX has already succeeded in bringing a Falcon 9 back to Earth. On Dec. 21, during a satellite launch for Orbcomm, the rocket's first stage came down for a soft landing at Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station — the first time this had ever been achieved during an orbital launch.
SpaceX doesn't plan to refly the Falcon 9 booster that touched down on Dec. 21, but company founder and CEO Elon Musk has said he hopes to do this with another landed rocket stage in the next year — so that's another milestone to watch for in 2016.

Feb. 7: SpaceX's return-to-flight cargo mission

SpaceX holds a $1.6 billion contract with NASA to fly at least 12 robotic resupply missions to the International Space Station (ISS) using the Falcon 9 and the company's uncrewed Dragon capsule. The first six such flights went perfectly, but the seventh ended just minutes after liftoff on June 28, 2015, when the Falcon 9 broke apart in the Florida skies.
 SpaceX will fly its first ISS cargo mission since the accident — which the company attributed to a faulty steel strut in the Falcon 9's upper stage — on Feb. 7, if current schedules hold. SpaceX has improved the rocket in the interim, modifying its stage-separation system and electronics, among other features, Musk has said. (The revamped Falcon 9 has already flown successfully, during the Dec. 21 launch for Orbcomm.)

March 14: Launch One for Europe's ExoMars mission

The European Space Agency (ESA) is scheduled to launch the first part of its ExoMars mission on March 14, blasting the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) on a seventh-month journey toward the Red Planet along with a technology-demonstrating lander.
The TGO will circle Mars and hunt for sources of methane, which here on Earth is primarily produced by living organisms (though the gas also can be generated by abiotic processes). The lander will take a variety of data during its descent through the Martian atmosphere and on the surface, but the main goal of the touchdown probe is to help pave the way for the life-hunting ExoMars rover, which will launch in 2018.
ESA is collaborating with the Russian Federal Space Agency, which is known as Roscosmos, on the ExoMars mission. This is because NASA was to be with them until congress refuse to adds money to NASA budget forcing  NASA to cancel it part of the program.

March 18: Astronauts launch toward International Space Station

NASA astronaut Jeffrey Williams and cosmonauts Aleksey Ovchinin and Oleg Skripochka are slated to launch toward the ISS on March 18. The trio will blast off in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
Other ISS crew launches are scheduled to blast off from Baikonur on June 21, Sept. 23 and Nov. 16.

April: Maiden launch of SpaceX's Falcon Heavy rocket

At some point in April, SpaceX plans to launch its huge Falcon Heavy rocket for the first time, with the liftoff taking place from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The 224-foot-tall (68 meters) Falcon Heavy will be the most powerful booster in the world when it's operational, capable of lofting 53 metric tons to low Earth orbit, SpaceX representatives say.
Elon Musk founded SpaceX in 2002 primarily to help humanity colonize Mars. The Falcon Heavy is a big part of those plans.

Summer: End of NASA's Dawn mission?

NASA's Dawn spacecraft has been orbiting Ceres since March 2015, studying the heavily cratered dwarf planet's mysterious bright spots and other intriguing features. Last month, Dawn finished spiraling down to its final science orbit, and is now taking pictures and making measurements from an altitude of just 230 miles (375 km).
The $466 million mission is scheduled to end in June, when Dawn runs out of hydrazine fuel for its attitude-control thrusters. But mission team members have said they might be able to squeeze some more life out of Dawn, so it's unclear exactly when operations will end.
Dawn also orbited the protoplanet Vesta from July 2011 through September 2012; it's the first probe ever to circle two different bodies beyond the Earth-moon system. (Ceres and Vesta are the two biggest objects in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.)

July 4: Juno arrives at Jupiter

NASA's Juno spacecraft is scheduled to enter orbit around Jupiter on July 4, nearly five years after the probe blasted off.
The solar-powered Juno will map out Jupiter's magnetic and gravitational fields precisely, revealing key details about the giant planet's evolution and structure — including whether or not it has a solid core, NASA officials have said.

Sept. 3: NASA asteroid-sampling probe blasts off

Another NASA spaceflight milestone comes on Sept. 3, with the scheduled launch of the agency's Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer mission, or OSIRIS-REx for short.
The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will head toward a 1,650-foot-wide (500 m) asteroid named Bennu, and, if everything goes according to plan, will arrive at the potentially hazardous space rock in 2018. OSIRIS-REx will snag at least 2.1 ounces (60 grams) of Bennu material and bring the sample back to Earth in 2023.
The mission should help researchers learn more about the origin and evolution of the solar system, and it should also reveal clues about how to nudge potentially dangerous asteroids away from Earth, NASA officials have said.

Sept. 30: Historic Rosetta comet mission ends

The first mission ever to orbit and land on a comet will wrap up on Sept. 30, when ESA's Rosetta spacecraft spirals down onto the surface of the 2.5 mile-wide (4 km) Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.
The Rosetta mission launched in March 2004 and arrived at Comet 67P in August 2014. The Rosetta mothership then sent a lander called Philae down onto the icy object's surface in November of that year. The Rosetta orbiter will gather a variety data during its Sept. 30 slow-motion crash landing, adding to the detailed picture of 67P that mission scientists have already pieced together.

Thursday, January 7, 2016

Pluto's 'Heart' Was Likely Broken by an Asteroid Long Ago

We've known since the Pluto flyby that Pluto had a heartshaped region, later named Tombaugh Regio. And we knew that the region was a study in contrasts. One side was old and cratered, while the otherside is so young many suspect it's still geologically active today. But New Horizons scientists are only now beginning to understand what might've formed the heart, and it points to a violent incident in the dwarf planet's past.
The likely agent that created the bizarre region known as Sputnik Planum was an ancient collision between Pluto and an asteroid the size of Manhattan. The 6.2 mile asteroid slammed into Pluto at some point, upending the region and possibly migrating it to its present location. 
The area itself likely has its strange, smooth appearance because it's still "warm" and thus prone to geological changes. "These blocks appear to have been removed from a subsurface layer, and they are now 'floating' in a large reservoir," New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern told Stone. In other words, Sputnik Planum may be icebergs floating on a nitrogen sea.

This scenario adds to the body of evidence that, rather than a frozen relic of the early solar system, Pluto is still a geologically active world with some interior heat source powering it despite its vast distance from the sun. 
There's still a lot to learn from Pluto, and the return of flyby data isn't anywhere near completed. But we might have an answer now to what happened to its most captivating region, even if that answer comes with dozens more questions.